Early diagnosis is almost always a good thing, right? While we know from HAPO and other studies that tight glycaemic control in late pregnancy reduces diabetic foetopathy, there is still significant foetopathy in women who achieved near normal glycaemia in the third trimester. In some studies, foetal cord C-peptide and excess foetal adiposity is not significantly reduced despite normalisation of foetal birthweight. Are we missing the boat somewhere?
Breast cancer is now recognised as a heterogeneous group of diseases that varies in morphology, biological characteristics, behaviour and thence, response to therapy. It’s a rapidly moving field and it’s time to review where these receptors fit into clinical practice
Viscosupplementation for osteoarthritis - does it work?
Contraception in Patients with Venous Thromboembolism - what is safe?
Nonheme Fe3+ is reduced to Fe2+ by a ferric reductase enzyme on the enterocytes’ brush border. Iron is then transported across the enterocyte membrane by a divalent metal transporter 1 into the cell. Iron is either stored in the cell as intracellularly ferritin or exported into plasma by ferroportin. Ferroportin is a transmembrane transporter in all iron exporting cells (including enterocytes and macrophages). Once in the plasma, iron is rapidly and avidly bound to plasma ferritin.
A common decision rule employed in the US in an ED setting for subjecting a patient to a plain radiograph is the Ottawa Knee Rule. This rule states that a patient over the age of 18 with acute posttraumatic knee pain should have plain radiographs if they meet the following criteria:
The anatomy of the cervical spine is a marvelous construct that houses and protects the delicate spinal cord, provides support for the head, and allows for a high degree of mobility and range of motion. But the same engineering that allows this area of the spine to be so flexible also leaves it vulnerable to injury.
it’s concerning that artificial sweeteners, a relatively new phenomenon with no long-term studies on humans, is being marketed in droves. “Sugar-free” products are everywhere, and similar to the new “vaping” fad, the science simply isn’t there to prove it doesn’t cause long-term side effects such as cancer, strokes, or diabetes because the product hasn’t been out long enough.
Poor posture can cause neck pain by putting extra strain on ligaments and muscles. Standing with your shoulders slouched and chin poking forward, working with your head down for long periods of time, slumping while seated and sleeping face-down, are common postural problems that affect the neck.
Suggestions on how to prevent posture-related neck pain include...